Life: How Experience in the Womb Can Affect Our Lives Forever

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
March 2009

ABSTRACT:?Until we re-direct our focus earlier, we shall never solve these human problems.? Dr. Arthur Janov explains this position in his article and describes how the psychophysiological effects of events that occur during the first nine months influence the lifespan. Clearly focusing on the womb is a shift in his Primal theory. This change proposes the importance of healing prenatal imprints to more clearly see their widespread cumulative and enduring effects. ?It means that how the birth trauma is played out, and reacted to, depends on earlier life circumstances?womb-life.?


Addis, D. R., & Schacter, D. L. (2008). Constructive episodic simulation: Temporal distance and detail of past and future events modulate hippocampal engagement. Hippocampus, 18, 227-237.

Anand, K J. S. & Scalzo, F. M. (2000). Can adverse neonatal experiences alter brain development and subsequent behavior? Biology of the Neonate, 77(2), 69-82.

Barr, C. S., Newman, T. K., Becker, M. L., Champoux, M., Lesch, K P, Suomi, S. J., Goldman, D., & Higley, J. D. (2003). Serotonin transporter gene variation is associated with alcohol sensitivity in rhesus macaques exposed to early-life stress. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research, 27(5), 812-7.

Briley, M. S., Raisman, R., & Langer, S. Z. (1979). Human platelets posses high-affinity binding sites for 3H-imipramine. European Journal Pharmacology, 58(3), 347-348.

Bygdeman, M. & Jacobson, B. (1998). Obstetric care and proneness of offspring to suicide as adults: Case control study. British Medical Journal, 327(7169), 1346-9.

Cannon, T. D, Yolken, R, Buka, S., & Torrey, E. F. (2008). Decreased neurotrophic response to birth hypoxia in the etiology of schizophrenia. Biological Psychiatry, 64(9), 797-802.

Canoy, D., Pouta, A., Ruokonen, A., Hartikainen, A. L., Saikku, P, & Jarvelin, M. R. (2009). Weight at birth and infancy in relation to adult leukocyte count: a population-based study of 5619 men and women followed from the fetal period to adulthood. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. Retrieved March 2009 from:

Cirulli, F., Bonsignore, L. T., Venerosi, A., Valanzano, A., Chiarotti, R, & Alleva, E. (2003). Long-term effects of acute perinatal asphyxia on rat maternal behavior. Neurotoxicology and Teratology, 25(5), 571-578.

Côté, F., Fligny , C, Bayard, E., Launay, J. M., Gershon, M. D., Mallet, J., & Vodjdani, G. (2007). Maternal serotonin is crucial for murine embryonic development. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104(1), 329-34.

Diego, M., Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Schanberg, S., Kuhn, C, González-Quintero, V. H., (2009). Prenatal depression restricts fetal growth. Early Human Development, 85(1), 65-70.

Fendt, M., Lex, A., Falkai, P, Henn, FA., & Schmitt, A. (2008). Behavioural alterations in rats following neonatal hypoxia and effects of clozapine: implications for schizophrenia. Pharmacopsychiatry, 41(4) 138-45.

Field, T. (2001). Targeting adolescent mothers with depressive symptoms for early intervention. Sage Family Studies Abstracts, 23(3), 275-407.

Field, T., Diego, M., Hernandez-Reif, M. & Fernandez, M. (2007). Depressed mothers' newborns show less dismmination of other newborns' cry sounds. Infant Behavior and Development, 30(3), 431-435.

Field, T., Diego, M., Dietera, J., Hernandez-Reifa, M., Schanbergb, S., Kuhnb, C, Yandoc, R. & Bendelld, D. (2004). Prenatal depression effects on the fetus and the newborn. Infant Behavior and Development, 27(2), 216-229.

Huttunen, M. O. & Niskanen, P (1978). Prenatal loss of father and psychiatric disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 35(4), 429-31.

Hoffman, E. & Goldstein, L. (1981). Hemispheric quantitative EEG changes following emotional reactions in neurotic patients. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 63(2), 153-64.

Huot, R. L., Brennan, P A., Stowe, Z. N, Plotsky, P M., & Walker, E. F (2004). Negative affect in offspring of depressed mothers is predicted by infant Cortisol levels at 6 months and maternal depression during pregnancy, but not postpartum. N.Y. Academy of Science, 1032, 234-236.

Jacobson, B. & Bygdeman, M. (1998). Obstetric care and proneness of offspring to suicide as adults: Case-control study. BMJ, 317, 1346-49.

JAMA and Archives Journals (2008, February 5). Severe stressful events early in pregnancy may be associated with schizophrenia among offspring. ScienceDaily . Retrieved January 22, 2009, from /releases/2008/02/080204161433.htm

Kaplan, L., Evans, L., & Monk, C. (2008). Effects of mother's prenatal psychiatric status and postnatal caregiving on infant biobehavioral regulation. Early Human Development, 84(4), 249-256.

Lowery, C. L., Hardman, M., Manning, N, Hall, R., & Anand, K. (2007). Neurodevelopmental changes of fetal pain. Seminars in Perinatology, 31(5), 275-282.

Lynch, G., Rex, C. S., Chen, L. Y., & Gall, C. M. (2008). The substrates of memory: Defects, treatments and enhancement. European Journal of Pharmacology, 585, 2-13.

Mill, J., Tang, T, Kaminsky, Z., Khare, T, Yazdanpanah, S., Bouchard, L. et al, (2008). Epigenomic profiling reveals DNA-methylation changes associated with major psychosis. American Journal of Human Genetics, 82(3), 696-711.

Nyberg, K., Buka, S. L., & Lipsitt, L. P. (2000). Perinatal medication as a potential risk factor for adult drug abuse in a North American cohort. Epidemiology, 11(6), 715-716.

Phillips, D. I. W., & Jones, A. (2006). Fetal programming of autonomic and HPA function: do people who were small babies have enhanced stress responses? Journal of Physiology, 572(1), 45-50.

Ponirakis, A., Susman, E.J., & Stifer, CA. (1998). Negative emotionality and Cortisol during adolescent pregnancy and its effects on infant health and autonomic nervous system reactivity. Developmental Psychobiology, 33, 163-174.

Ranalli, P (2000). The emerging reality of fetal pain in late abortion. National Right to Life News, 27(9).

Singer, D. (2004). Metabolic adaptation to hypoxia: Cost and benefit of being small. Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology, 141(3), 215-228.

Singer, D. (1999). Neonatal tolerance to hypoxia: a comparative-physiological approach. Comparative Biochemistry And Physiology. Part A, Molecular and Integrative Physiology, 123(3), 221-34.

Scripps Research Institute (2007, September 6). Specific neurons involved in memory formation identified. ScienceDaily. Retrieved 1/20/2009.

Seckl, J. R & Meaney, M. J. (2006). Glucocorticoid "programming" and PTSD risk. Annals of the NY. Academy of Science, 1071, 351-378.

Thompson, P (2007). "Down will come baby": Prenatal stress, primitive defenses and gestational dysregulation. Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 8(3), 99-113.

University of Pennsylvania (2005, December 25). Researchers know what you were about to say; fMRI used to detect memory storage. Science Daily. Retrieved 1/18/2009.

The Possible Prenatal Origins of Morbid Obesity

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
December 2008
The rapidly developing science of pre-birth psychology is casting a new light on some old problems. One such is morbid obesity, some aspects of which can possibly be explained in the light of prenatal theory. This article sets out the hypothesis that firstly, obesity may represent a self-destructive personal choice. Secondly, there may be a psychological reason why the possibly fatal consequences of that choice are largely ignored by the obese person. Thirdly, the choice and its consequences comprise a style of eating behaviour that seems to re-construct a particular pre-birth experience.

Briere, J. ( 1 992). Child abuse trauma: Theory and treatment of the lasting effects. London: Sage Publications.

Brierly, K. (Director) (2006). The 34 stone teenager (TV documentary). London: Brighter Pictures.

Byrne, S., Cooper, Z., & Fairburn, C. (2003). Weight maintenance and relapse in obesity: a qualitative study. International Journal of Obesity, 27(8), 955-962.

Fairburn, C. G. & Brownell, K. D. (Eds.) (2002). Eating disorders and obesity: A comprehensive handbook (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press.

Fall, H. D. (2006). Developmental origins of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity in humans. In M. Wintour-Coghlan & J. Owens (Eds.), Early life origins of health and disease (pp. 8-28). New York: Springer Science+Business Media.

Felitti, V. J. (1993). Childhood sexual abuse, depression, and family dysfunction in adult obese patients: a case control study. Southern Medical Journal, 86, 732-6.

Fernandez-Real, J. M., & Ricart W. (1999) Insulin resistance and inflammation in an evolutionary perspective: the contribution of cytokine genotype/phenotype to thriainess. Diabetologia, 42(11), 1367-74

Foster G. D., Wadden, T. ?., Makris, A. P., Davidson, D., Sanderson, R. S., Allison, D. B. & Kessler, A. (2003). Primary care physicians' attitudes about obesity and its treatment. Obesity Research, 11(10), 1168-1177.

Glinski, J., Wetzler, S., & Goodman, E. (2001). The psychology of gastric bypass surgery. Obesity Surgery, 11(5), 581-8.

Hayton, A. (2000). Food and you: For people with a food problem. St. Albans, England: Wren Publications.

Hayton, A., (2007). Untwinned: Perspectives on the death of a twin before birth. St. Albans, England: Wren Publications.

Heatherton, T. E., & Baumeister, R. E. 1 1991). Binge eating as escape from self-awareness. Psychological Bulletin, 110(1), 86-108.

Joseph, K. S. & Kramer, M. S. (1996) Review of the evidence on fetal and early childhood antecedents of adult chronic disease. Epidemiologic Reviews, 28(2), 158-74.

Landy, H. L., & Keith, L. G. (1998). The vanishing twin: a review. Human Reproduction Update, 4(2), 177-83.

Levi, P. ( 1988). The drowned and the saved. New York: Summit.

Myers, A., & Rosen, J. C. (1999). Obesity stigmatization and coping: Relation to mental health symptoms, body image, and self-esteem. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders, 23(3), 221-230.

Odent, M. (2006). Obesity from a primal health research perspective. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 20(2), 135-141.

Peeters, A., Barendregt, J., Willekens, F., Mackenbach, J. P., Mamun, A. A. L., & Bonneux, L. (2003). Overweight and obesity by middle age are associated with shortened lifespan. Annals of Internal Medicine, 138(1), 1-44.

Piontelli, A. (2002). Twins: From fetus to child. London: Routledge.

Rotter, J., & Diamond, J. (1987). What maintains the frequencies of human genetic diseases? Nature, 329(6137), 289-90.

Turner-Groot, J. T. (2005). Prebirth dynamics in the formatting of relationships & reactive attachment disorders. !Presented at the 16th International Congress of the ISPPM The Anthropology & Psychology of Pregnancy & Birth, Heidelberg, Germany 2-5 June 2005.]

Vallis T. M., & Ross M. A. (1993). The role of psychological factors in bariatric surgery for morbid obesity: Identification of psychological predictors of success. Obesity Surgery, 3(4), 346-359.

Williamson D. F., Thompson T.J., Anda, R. F., Dietz, W. H. & Felitti, V. (2002). Body weight and obesity in adults and self-reported abuse in childhood. International Journal of Obesity, 28(8), 1075-1082.

Woodward, J. (1998). The lone twin. London/New York: Free Association Books.

Yalom, I. D. (1980). Existential psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.

The Interactional Model of Maternal-Fetal Attachment: An Empirical Analysis

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
October 2008

An Interactional Model of Maternal-Fetal Attachment was empirically studied to analyze contributions of fetal characteristics and psychoanalytic and ecological components. Ninety-nine women during their third trimester were administered questionnaires about themselves, their environment, and their fetus to identify predictors of maternal-fetal attachment. Whether the woman knew the fetus? gender and fetal age were the best predictors of the strength of maternal-fetal attachment.


American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). p. 320. Washington, D. C: American Psychiatric Association.

Beck, A. T., Ward, C, Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erlbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 53-63.

Behnke, M. & Eyler, E D. (1993). The consequences of prenatal substance abuse for the developing fetus, newborn, and young child. International Journal of tlie Addictions, 28, 1341-1391.

Bibring, G. L. (1959). Some considerations of the psychological processes in pregnancy. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 14, 113 -121.

Brazelton, T. B. & Cramer, B. G. (1990). The earliest relationship: parents, infants, and the drama of early attachment. Reading, M.A.: Addison- Wesley.

Bunikowski, R., Grimmer, L, Heiser, A., Metze, B., Schafer, A., Obladen, M. (1998) Neurodevelopmental outcome after prenatal exposure to opiates. European Journal of Pediatrics 157: 724-30.

Buri, J. R. (1989). Self-esteem and appraisals of parental behavior. Journal of Adolescent Research, 4, 33 - 49.

Carter-Jessop, L. & Keller, B. (1987). Early maternal bonding. Ch 6. In T. R. Verny (Ed.), Pre- and perinatal psychology: An introduction, pp. 107 - 127. New York: Human Sciences Press.

Condon, J. T (1985).The parental -foetal relationship - a comparison of male and female expectant parents. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 4,271 - 284.

Cranley, M. S. (1981). Development of a tool for the measurement of maternal attachment during pregnancy, Nursing Research, 30, 281 - 284.

Datta-Bhutada, S., Johnson, H. L., & Rosen, T. S. (1998). Intrauterine cocaine and crack exposure: neonatal outcomes. Journal of Perinatology, 18(S), 183 - 188.

Doan, H. McK. & Zimerman, A. (2003). Conceptualizing prenatal attachment: toward a multidimensional view. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 18(2), 109-129.

Finnegan, L. P (1994). Perinatal morbidity and mortality in substance using families: effects and intervention strategies. Bulletin on Narcotics, 46, 19 - 43.

Fonagy, P., Steele, M., Moran, G, Steele, H. & Higgitt, A. (1993). Measuring the ghost in the nursery: an empirical study of the relations between parents' mental representations of childhood experiences and their infants' security of attachment. Journal of American Psychoanalytic Association, 41(4), 957 - 989.

Gaffney K. F. (1986). Maternal-fetal attachment in relation to self-concept and anxiety. Maternal-Child Nursing Journal, 15(2), 91-101.

George, C. & Solomon, J. (1999). Attachment and caregiving: the caregiving behavioral system. In J. Cassidy & P. R. Shaver (Eds.), Handbook of attachment: theory, research, and clinical applications. New York: Guilford Press.

Grace, J. T. (1989). Development of maternal -fetal attachment during pregnancy. Nursing Research, 38(4), 228-232.

Grant, B. F. & Hasin, D. S. (1991). Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule (AUDADIS). Bethesda, M. D.: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA).

Hart, R. & McMahon, CA. (2006). Mood state and psychological adjustment to pregnancy. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 9, 329-337.

Hendrick, S. S. (1988). A generic measure of relationship satisfaction. Journal of Marriage and Family, 50, 93-98.

Heidrich, S. M. & Cranley M. S. (1989). Effect of fetal movement, ultrasound scans, and amniocentesis on maternal-fetal attachment. Nursing Research, 38(2), 81-84.

Hobfoll, S. E., Ritter, C, Lavin, J., Hulsizer, M. R., & Cameron, R. P. (1995). Depression prevalence and incidence among inner-city pregnant and postpartum women, Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(S), 445-453.

Jones, K. L. & Smith, D. W. (1973). Recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome in early infancy Lancet, 2, 99-1001.

Kemp, V. H., & Page, C. K. (1987). Maternal prenatal attachment in normal and high-risk pregnancies. Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecological and Neonatal Nursing, 16(3), 195-206.

Klaus, M. H., Kennell, J. H., & Klaus, P. H. (1995). Bonding: building the foundation of secure attachment and independence, p. 192. Reading, M.A.: Addison-Wesley.

Koniak-Griffin, D. (1988). The relationship between social support, self-esteem, and maternal-fetal attachment in adolescents. Research in Nursing and Health, 11, 269-278.

Kunkel, G. F. & Doan, H. McK. (2003). Fetal attachment and depression: measurement matters. Journal of Perinatal and Prenatal Psychology and Health, 18(2), 149 - 166.

LaGasse, L. L., Messinger, D., Lester, B. M., Seifer, R., Tronick, E. Z., Bauer, C. R., Shankaran, S., Bada, H. S., Wright, L. L., Smeriglio, V. L., Finnegan, L. P, Maza, P L. & Liu, J. (2003). Prenatal drug exposure and maternal and infant feeding behaviour. Archives of Diseases in Child, Fetal, Neonatal Education, 88, 391 - 399.

Leifer, M. (1977). Psychological changes accompanying pregnancy and motherhood. General Psychiatry Monographs, 95, 55-96.

Leifer, M. (1980). Psychological effects of motherhood: a study of first pregnancy . pp. 47. New York: Praeger.

Lewis, M. & Lee-Painter, S. (1974). An interactional approach to the mother-infant dyad. In M. Lewis & L. A. Rosenblum (Eds.), The effect of the infant on its caregiver, pp. 22-23. New York: John Wiley & Sons.

Lewis, M. W. (2001). Faciliation of maternal-fetal bonding in pregnant substance -abusing women attending outpatient treatment. Journal of Addictions Nursing, 13(3/4), 175-185.

Lewis, M. W., Misra, S., Johnson, H. L. & Rosen, T. S. (2004). Neurological and developmental outcomes of prenatally cocaine-exposed offspring from 12 - 36 months. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 30(2), 299 - 320.

Mayes, L. C, Bornstein, M. H., Chawarska, K. & Granger, R. H. (1995). Information processing and developmental assessments in 3-month-old infants exposed prenatally to cocaine. Pediatrics, 95(4), 539-545.

Mercer, R. T., Ferketich, S., May, K. A., DeJoseph, J., & Sollid, D. (1988). Further exploration of maternal and paternal fetal attachment. Research in Nursing and Health, 11, 83 - 95.

Nichols, M. R., Roux, G. M., & Harris, N R. (2007). Primigravid and multigravid women: prenatal perspectives. Journal of Perinatal Education, 16(2), 21-23.

National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). (1996). Drinking and your pregnancy. Publication -No. 96-4101-1966.

Office of the Surgeon General. (2005). U. S. General Releases Advisory on Alcohol Use in Pregnancy. Retrieved March 30, 2008, from .

Phipps, S. & Zinn, A. B. (1986). Psychological response to amniocentesis: mood state and adaptation to pregnancy. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 23, 131-142.

Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Journal of Applied Psychological Measurement, 385-401.

Raskin, V. D., Rishman, J. A., & Gaines, C. (1990). Patterns of depressive symptoms in expectant and new parents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147(B), 658-660.

Reading, A. E., Campbell, S., Cox, D. N, & Sledmere, C. M. (1982). Health beliefs and healthcare behavior in pregnancy. Psychosomatic Medicine, 12, 379-383.

Rosen, T. S. & Johnson, H. L. (1982). Children of methadone-maintained mothers: followup to 18 months of age. Journal of Pediatrics, 101(2), 192-196.

Spence, M. R., Williams, R., DiGregorio, G. J., Kirby-McDonnell, A. & Polansky, M. (1991). The relationship between recent cocaine use and pregnancy outcomes. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 78, 326-329.

Stern, D. N. (1995). The motherhood constellation: a unified view of parent-infant psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.

Steele, H. & Steele, M. (1994). Intergenerational patterns of attachment. In K. Bartholomew & D. Perlman (Eds.), Attachment processes in adulthood; advances in personal relationships. (Vol. 5.). p. 111. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Valenzuela, C. F (1997). Alcohol and neutotransmitter interactions. Alcohol Health and Research World, 21(2), 144-148.

Warren, K. R. & Foudin, L. L. (2001). Alcohol-related birth defects - The past, present, and future. Alcohol Research & Health, 25(3), 153 - 158.

Wasserman, G. A., Rauh, V. A., Brunelli, S. A., Garcia-Castro, M., Ñecos, B. (1990). Psychosocial attributes and life experiences of disadvantaged minority mothers: Age and ethnic variations. Child Development, 61, 566-580.

Wu, J. H. L. & Eichmann, M. A. (1988). Fetal sex identification and prenatal bonding. Psychological Reports, 63, 199 - 202.

Zeanah, C. H., Carr, S., & WoIk, S. (1990). Fetal movements and the imagined baby of pregnancy: Are they related? Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 8, 23 - 36.

Zimet, G. D., Dahlem, N. W, Zimet, S. G., & Farley, G. K. (1988). The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52, 30 - 41.

Zuckerman, B., Frank, D. A., Hingson, R., Amaro, H., Levenson, S. M., Kayne, H., Parker, S., Vinci, R., Aboagye, K, Fried, L. E., Cabrai, H., Timperi, R. & Bauchner, H. (1989). Effects of maternal marijuana and cocaine use on fetal growth. New England Journal of Medicine, 320, 762 - 768.

Prenatal Attachment and Postnatal Infant Sleep

Price: $10.00
Related Content:: 
Publication Date: 
October 2008

This study examined the relationship between maternal prenatal attachment and postnatal infant sleep. Ninety first-time pregnant mothers, between 35 and 40 gestational weeks, completed the Prenatal Attachment Inventory (M?ller, 1989), which consists of 21 items and assesses the mother?s prenatal attachment to her fetus. After the birth of their infant, the mothers charted their infant?s sleep for three consecutive 24-hour periods when the infant was 1 week and 3 months old, using the Sleep/Activity Record (Barnard, 1999).


Anders, T. F. (1994). Infant sleep, nighttime relationships, and attachment. Psychiatry, 57, 11-21.

Anders, T. F., Goodlin-Jones, B. L., & Sadeh, A. (2000). Sleep disorders. In C. H. Zeanah (Ed.), Handbook of Infant Mental Health (2nd ed., pp. 326-338). New York: Guilford Press.

Anders, T. F., Halpern, L. F., & Hua, J. (1992). Sleeping through the night: A develpmental perspective. Pediatrics, 90(4), 554-560.

Anisfeld, E., & Lipper, E. (1983). Early contact, social support, and mother-infant bonding. Pediatrics, 72(1), 79-83.

Barnard, K. E. (1999). Beginning rhythms: The emerging process of sleep wake behaviors and self-regulation. Seattle: NCAST, University of Washington.

Benoit, D., Parker, K. C., & Zeanah, C. H. (1997). Mothers' representations of their infants assessed prenatally: Stability and association with infants' attachment classification. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 38(3), 307-313.

Benoit, D., Zeanah, C. H., Boucher, C., & Minde, K. K. (1992). Sleep disorders in early childhood: Association with insecure maternal attachment. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 31(1), 86-93.

Condon, J. T. (1993). The assessment of antenatal emotional attachment: Development of a questionnaire instrument. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 66, 167-183.

Condon, J. T., & Corkindale, C. (1997). The correlates of antenatal attachment in pregnant women. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 70, 359-372.

Cranley M. S. (1981). Development of a tool for the measurement of maternal attachment during pregnancy. Nursing Research, 30(5), 281-284.

Escallier, L. A. (1995). Prenatal predictors of colic: Maternal-fetal attachment, maternal state anxiety and maternal hope. Unpublished Dissertation, Adelphi University, Garden City, NY.

Field, T. (1995). Infants of depressed mothers. Infant Behavior and Development, 18, 1-13.

Fleming, A. S., Ruble, D. N., Flett, G. L., & Van Wagner, V. (1990). Adjustment in first-time mothers: Changes in mood and mood content during the early postpartum months. Developmental Psychology, 26(1), 137-143.

Fuller, J. R. (1990). Early patterns of maternal attachment. Health Care for Women International, 11, 433-446.

Gaffney K. F. (1986). Maternal-fetal attachment in relation to self-concept and anxiety. Maternal-Child Nursing Journal, 15(2), 91-101.

George, C., Kaplan, N., & Main, M. (1985). The Adult Attachment Interview. Unpublished manuscript, University of California: Berkley.

Ingerson, E. W., & Thoman, E. B. (1999). Sleep/wake states of preterm infants: Stability, developmental change, diurnal variation, and relations with caregiving activity. Child Development, 70(1), 1-10.

Jones, N. A., Field, T., Fox, N. A., Lundy, B., & Davalos, M. ( 1997). EEG activation in 1-month-old infants of depressed mothers. Development and Psychopathology 9, 491-505.

Keener, M. A., Zeanah, C. H., & Anders, T. F. (1988). Infant temperament, sleep organization, and nighttime parental interventions. Pediatrics, 81(6), 762-771.

Kemp, V. H., & Page, C. K. (1987). Maternal prenatal attachment in normal and high-risk pregnancies. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 16, 179-184.

Koniak-Griffin, D. (1988). The relationship between social support, self-esteem, and maternal-fetal attachment in adolescents. Research in Nursing & Health, 11, 269-278.

Leifer, M. (1977). Psychological changes accompanying pregnancy and motherhood. Genetic Psychological Monographs, 95, 55-96.

Levy-Shiff, R., Dimitrovsky, L., Shulman, S., & Har-Even, D. (1998). Cognitive appraisals, coping strategies, and support resources as correlates of parenting and infant development. Developmental Psychology, 34(6), 1417-1427.

Lindgren, K. (2001). Relationships among maternal-fetal attachment, prenatal depression, and health practices in pregnancy. Research in Nursing & Health, 24, 203-217.

Mercer, R. T., Ferketich, S., May, K., DeJoseph, J., & Sollid, D. (1988). Further exploration of maternal and paternal fetal attachment. Reseach in Nursing and Health, 11, 89-95.

Müller, M. E. (1992). A critical review of prenatal attachment research. Scholarly Inquiry for Nursing Practice: An International Journal, 6(1), 5-26.

Müller, M. E. (1993). Development of the prenatal attachment inventory. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 15(2), 199-215.

Müller, M. E. (1996). Prenatal and postnatal attachment: A modest correlation. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 25, 161-166.

Müller, M. E., & Ferketich, S. (1992). Assessing the validity of the dimensions of prenatal attachment. Maternal-Child Nursing Journal, 20(1), 1-10.

Rubin, R. (1984). Maternal identity and the maternal experience. New York: Springer Publishing Company.

Sher, A. (2001). Attachment and sleep: A study of night waking in 12 -month-old infants. Developmental Psychobiology, 38, 274-285.

Sher, A., Epstein, R., Sadeh, A., Tirosh, E., & Lavie, P. (1992). Toddlers' sleep and temperament: Reporting bias or a valid link? A research note. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33(1), 1249-1254.

Sher, M. S. (1998). Understanding sleep ontogeny to assess brain dysfunction in neonates and infants. Journal of Child Neurology, 13, 467-474.

Siddiqui, A., & Hägglöf, B. (2000). Does maternal prenatal attachment predict postnatal mother-infant interaction? Early Human Development, 59, 13-25.

Siddiqui, A., Hägglöf, B., & Eisemann, M. (1999). An exploration of prenatal attachment in Swedish expectant women. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 17(4), 369-380.

St. James-Roberts, L, & Plewis, I. (1996). Individual differences, daily fluctuations, and developmental changes in amounts of infant waking, fussing, crying, feeding, and sleeping. Child Development, 67, 2527-2540.

Stern, D. (1995). The motherhood constellation. New York: BasicBooks.

Tikotzky L., & Sadeh, A. (2001). Sleep patterns and sleep disruptions in kindergarten children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 30(4), 581-591.

Trad, P. V. (1991). Adaptation to developmental transformations during the various phases of motherhood. Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 19(3), 403-421.

Wachter, M. P. K. (2002). Psychological distress and dyadic satisfaction as predictors of maternal-fetal attachment. Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.

Zachariah, R. (1994). Maternal-fetal attachment: Influence of mother-daughter and husband-wife relationships. Research in Nursing and Health, 17, 37-44.

Zeanah, C. H., Benoit, D., Hirshberg, L., Barton, M. L., & Regan, C. (1994). Mothers' representations of their infants are concordant with infant attachment classifications. Developmental Issues in Psychiatry and Psychology, 1, 1-14.

Zuckerman, B., Stevenson, J., & Bailey, V. (1987). Sleep problems in early childhood: Continuities, predictive factors, and behavioral correlates. Pediatrics, 80(5), 664-671.

Role of Maternal Reflective Ability for Substance Abusing Mothers

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
October 2008

This paper reports on a study designed to explore factors contributing to better outcomes for substance abusing pregnant and parenting women in residential treatment, and, as a result, contribute to better outcomes for their children. The setting was three live-in units focusing in supporting both abstinence from substances and mother-child relationship. Participants were 18 mother-baby pairs in treatment from perinatal phase to 4 months of child's age.


Ainsworth, M.D.S., Blehar, M.C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: assessed in the strange situation and at home. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Barth, R.D., & Needell, B. (1996). Outcomes of drug-exposed children four years postadoption. Children and Youth Services Review, 18, 37-56.

Bauman, P., & Levine, S.A. (1986). The development of children of drug addicts. International Journal of Addiction, 21, 849-863.

Bayley, N. (1993). Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID II). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.

Beeghly, M., & Tro nick, E. Z. (1994). Effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine in early infancy: toxic effects on the process of mutual regulation. Infant Mental Health Journal, 15(2), 158-175.

Blackwell, P., Kirkhart, K., Schmitt, D., & Kaiser, M. (1998). Cocaine/polydrug-affected dyads: implications for infant cognitive development and mother-infant interaction during the first six postnatal months. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19(2), 235-248.

Brockington, I. (1996). Motherhood and mental illness. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.

Burns, K., Chetnik, L., Burns, W. J., & Clark, R.. (1991). Dyadic disturbances in cocaineabusing mothers and their infants. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 47(2), 316-319.

Burns, K.A., Chetnik, L., Burns, W. J., & Clark, R. (1997). The early relationship of drug abusing mothers and their infants: an assessment at eight to twelve months of age. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 53, 279-287.

Carmichael Olson, H., O'Connor, M., & Fitzgerald, H.E. (2001). Lessons learned from study of the developmental impact of parental alcohol use. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22(3), 271-290.

Cassidy, B., Zoccolillo, M., & Hughes, S. (1996). Psychopathology in adolesecent mothers and its effects on mother-infant interactions: a pilot study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 41, 379-384.

Ciotti, F., Lambruschi, F, Pittino, B., & Crittenden, P. (1998). La valutazione della relatzione precoce madre-bambino in una popolazione di madri con una storia di tossicodipendenza attraverso l'uso del CARE -Index. Psicoterapia Cognitiva e Comportamentale, 4, 53-59.

Cox J.L., Holden J.M., & Sagovsky R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 782-786.

Cramer, B., Robert-Tissot, C, Stern, D.N., & Serpa-Rusconi, S. (1990). Outcome evaluation in brief mother-infant psychotherapy: a preliminary report. Infant Mental Health Journal, 11, 278-300.

Crittenden, P. (1992). Children's strategies for coping with adverse home environments. Child Abuse and Neglect: The International Journal, 16, 329-343.

Crittenden, P (2003). Care Index for Infants and Toddlers. Coding manual. Miami, USA: Family Relations Institute.

Crittenden, P, & Bonvillian, J.D. (1984). The effect of maternal risk status on maternal sensitivity to infant cues. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 54, 250-262.

Derogatis, L. R. (1993). Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI): administration, scoring and procedures manual, 3d edition. Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems.

Eiden, R. (2001). Maternal substance use and mother-infant feeding interactions. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22(4), 497-411.

Fonagy P., Steele, M., Moran, G.S., Steele, H., & Higgitt, A.C. (1991). Measuring the ghosts in the nursery: a summary of the main findings of the Anna Freud Centre/University College London Parent-Child Study. Bulletin of the Anna Freud Center, 14, 115-131.

Fonagy, P, & Target, M. (1996). Playing with reality: theory of mind and the normal development of psychic reality. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 77, 217-233.

Fonagy, P, Gergely, G., Jurist, E., & Target, M. (2002). Affect regulation, mentalization and the development of the self. New York: Other Press.

Fonagy, P., Steele, H., & Steele, M. (1991). Maternal representations of attachment during pregnancy predict the organization of infant-mother attachment at one year of age. Child Development, 62, 891-905.

Fonagy, P., Steele, M., Steele, H., Leigh, T, Kennedy, R., Mattoon, G., & Target, M. (1995). Attachment, the reflective self and borderline states: the predictive specificity of the Adult Attachment Interview and pathological emotional development. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir, & J. Kerr, (Eds.), Attachment theory: social, developmental and clinical perspectives (pp. 233-278). New York: Analytic Press.

Goyette-Ewing, M., Slade, A., Knoebber, K., Gilliam, W., Truman, S., & Mayes, L. (2002). Parents first: a developmental parenting program. Manual for scoring. Yale Child Study Center, CT, USA.

Grella, CE., Joshi, V., & Hser, Y-I. (2000). Program variation in treatment outcomes among women in residential drug treatment. Evaluation Review, 24(4), 364-383.

Grienenberger, J., Kelly, K., Slade, A. (2005). Maternal reflective functioning, motherinfant affective communication and infant attachment: exploring the link between mental states and observed caregiving behaviour. Attachment and Human Development, 7(3), 299-311.

Hurt, H., Brodsky, N, Betancourt, L., Braitman, L., Malmud, E., & Giannetta, J. (1995). Cocaine-exposed children: follow-up through 30 months. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 16, 29-35.

Johnson, A.L., Morrow, CE., Accornero, V.H., Lihua, X., Anthony, J.C, & Bandstra, E. S. (2002). Maternal cocaine use: estimated effects on mother-child play interactions in the preschool period. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 23(4), 191-202.

Kalland, M. (2001). Kiintymyssuhdeteorian kliininen merkitys. Soveltaminen erityistilanteissa (Clinical relevance of attachment theory. Specific situations). In J. Sinkkonen J. & M. Kalland M. (Eds.), Varhaiset ihmissuhteet ja niiden häiriintyminen (Early human relationships and their disturbances) (pp. 198-233). Helsinki: WSOY.

LaGasse, L. L., Messenger, D., Lester, B.M., Seifer, R., Tronick, E.Z., Bauer, CR., Shankaran, S., Bada, H. S., Wright, L.L., Smeriglio, V.L., Finnegan, L.P., Maza, PL., & Liu, J. (2003). Prenatal drug exposure and maternal and infant feeding behaviour. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 88(5), 391-399.

Leckman, J.F., & Mayes, L. C (1998). Understanding developmental psychopathology: how useful are evolutionary accounts? Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(10), 1011-1021.

Lester, B. M., & Tronick, E.Z. (1994). The effects of prenatal cocaine exposure and child outcome. Infant Mental Health Journal, 15(2), 107-120.

Luthar, S.S., Cushing, G., Merikangas, K.R., & Rounsaville, B.J. (1998). Multiple jeopardy: risk and protective factors among addicted mothers' offspring. Development and Psychopathology, 10(1), 117-136.

Mayes, L., & Truman, S. (2002). Substance abuse and parenting. In M. Bornstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting, volume 4. Social conditions and applied parenting, 2nd ed. (pp. 329-359). Mahvah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Mayes, L., Feldman, R,, Granger, R., Haynes, O., Bornstein, M., & Schottenfeld, R, (1997). The effects of polydrug use with and without cocaine on mother-infant interaction at 3 and 6 months. Infant Behavior and Development, 20(4), 489-502.

Meins, E., Fernyhough, C, Fradley, E., & Tuckey M., 2001. Rethinking maternal sensitivity: Mother's comments on infants' mental processes predict security of attachment at 12 months. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 42(5), 647-648

Moe, V., & Slinning, K. (2001). Children prenatally exposed to substances: gender- related differences in outcome from infancy to 3 years of age. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22, 334-350.

Murray D., & Cox J.L. (1990). Screening for depression during pregnancy with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 8, 99-107.

Nellis, L., & Gridley, B. (1994). Review of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development , 2nd edition. Journal of School Psychology, 32, 212-219.

Pacquette, D., Bigras, M., Zoccolino, M., Tremblay, R., Labelle, M.-E., & Azar, R. (2001). Comparison de la sensibilite parentale entre des meres adolescentes et des meres adultes peu scolarisees. Revue de Psychoeducation et d'Orientation, 30, 283-298.

Pajulo, M. (2001). Early motherhood at risk: mothers with substance dependency. Doctoral thesis. University of Turku, Finland.

Pajulo, M., Savonlahti, E., Sourander, A., Ahlqvist, S., Helenius, H., & Piha, J. (2001). An early report on the mother-baby interactive capacity of substance-abusing mothers. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 20, 143-151.

Pajulo, M., Suchman, N., Kalland, M., & Mayes, L.C. (2006). Enhancing the effectiveness of residential treatment for substance abusing pregnant and parenting women: focus on maternal reflective functioning and mother-child relationship. Infant Mental Health Journal 27(5), 448-465.

Patino, FL. (1993). Mothers' prenatal attachment history, attachment status and social support satisfaction as predictors of postnatal maternal sensitivity. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 3787.

Schechter, D.S., Kaminer, T, Grienenberger, J.F., & Amat, J. (2003). Fits and starts: a motherinfant case-study involving intergenerational violent trauma and pseudoseizures across three generations. Infant Mental Health Journal, 24(5), 510-528.

Schechter, D.S., Zeanah, C, & Myers, M.M. (2002). Negative and distorted maternal attributions among violence-exposed mothers of very young children before and after single-session feedback: are maternal psychopathology and reflective functioning predictive? Paper presented at the meeting of the World Association of Infant MentalHealth, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Schuler, M., Nair, P., & Harrington, D. (2003). Developmental outcome of drug-exposed children through 30 months: a comparison of Bayley and Bayley II. Psychological Assessment, 15(3), 435-438.

Seifer, R., & Dickstein, S. (2000). Parental mental illness and infant development. In CH. Zeanah (Ed.) Handbook of infant mental health (pp. 145-160). New York: The Guilford Press,

Slade, A., Bernbach, E., Grienenberger, J., Levy, D.W., & Locker, A. (2002, 2005). The parent development interview and The pregnancy interview. Manual for scoring. Yale Child Study Center, CT, USA.

Slade, A., Grienenberger, J., Bernbach, E., Levy, D., & Locker, A. (2005). Maternal reflective functioning and attachment: considering the transmission gap. Attachment and Human Development, 7(3), 283-298.

Suchman, N., DeCoste, C, Schmitt, N., Legow, N., & Mayes, L. (2007). The Mothers and Toddlers Program: Preliminary findings from an attachment-based parenting intervention for substance abusing mothers. Psychoanalytic Psychology, in press.

Suchman, N.E., Altomare, M., Moller, R, Slade, ?., & Mayes, L. (2003). Emotionally responsive parenting: a new parenting intervention for drug dependent mothers. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of College on Problems of Drug Dependence. Bal Harbour, FL, USA.

Suchman, N.E., Mayes, L., Conti, J., Slade, A., & Rounsaville, B. (2004). Rethinking parenting interventions for drug dependent mothers: from behavioural management to fostering emotional bonds. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 27, 179-185

Suchman, N.E., McMahon, T.J., Slade, A., & Luthar, S.S. (2005). How early bonding, depression, illicit drug use and perceived support work together to influence drug dependent mothers' caregiving. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 75(3), 431-445.

Truman, S.D., Levy, D., & Mayes, L. C. (2004). Reflective functioning as mediator between drug use, parenting stress and child behaviour. Unpublished manuscript.

Ward, M. J., & Carlson, E.A. (1995). The predictive validity of the Adult Attachment Interview for adolescent mothers. Child Development, 66, 69-79.

Recreating Ourselves: Ground-Breaking Research for a New Humanity

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
May 2008

The intention of this paper is to introduce interdisciplinary research challenging the foundations of self-growth fields and leading to the birth of a new humanity. The paper briefly summarizes relevant literature and introduces new adult verbal and nonverbal typologies with origins in four key preverbal developmental stages (conception, prenatal, birth and bonding). Interdisciplinary contributing fields included are embryology, neurobiology, attachment theory, body-centered psychotherapy, somatic psychology, and prenatal and perinatal psychology.


Caldwell, C. (2001). Bridging prenatal and perinatal psychology with somatic psychology. The Moving Cycle.

English, J. B.(1985). Different doorway: Adventures of a caesarean born. CA: Earth Heart.

Hendricks, G. & Hendricks, K. (1987). Techniques for dealing with prenatal and perinatal issues in therapy: A bodymind perspective. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 1(3), 230-238.

_____ (1991). Radiance: Breathwork, movement & body-centered psychotherapy. Berkeley, CA: Wingbow Press.

_____ (1992). At the speed of life: A new approach to personal change through bodycentered therapy. New York, NY: Bantam Book.

_____ (1999). The conscious heart: A body-centered approach to creating intimacy. In J. Carlson & L. Sperry (Eds.), The intimate couple (pp. 406-420). Philadelphia, PA: Brunner/Mazel.

Immelmami, K. (1972). Sexual and other long-term aspects of imprinting in birds and other species. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 4, 147-174.

Jacobsen, B., Eklund, G., Hamberger, L. Linnarwsson, D., Sedvall, G. & Valverios, M. (1987). Perinatal origins of adult self-destructive behavior. Acta Psych. Scand.,76(4\ 364-71.

Johncock, P. & Sillito, M. (2006). The power of living genius. Sparks, NV: Fun Unlimited Inc.

Lyman, B. J. (1999). Antecedents to somatoform disorders: A pre-and perinatal psychology hypothesis. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 12(3-4), 247-254.

_____ (2005) Prenatal and Perinatal Psychotherapy with Adults: An Integrative Model for Empirical Testing. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 20(1), 58-76.

Riley, C. D. (1986). Tess: The emotional and physiological effects of prenatal physical trauma. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 1(1), 69-74.

Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind: How relationships and the brain interact to shape who we are. New York: The Gilford Press.

Siegel, D. J. & Hartzell, M. (2003). Parenting from the inside out. New York: Tarcher-Putnam.

Sonne, J. C. (1997). Interpreting the dread of being aborted in therapy. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 11(4), 185-214.

Ward, S. (1999). Birth trauma in infants and children. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 12(3-4), 201-212.

Webster's new collegiate dictionary (8th ed.). (1976). Springfield, MA.

The Alchemical Dance of Mother and Infant: A Blueprint for Co-Creative Dyadic Unity During the Prenatal and Perinatal Period

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
October 2007

This theoretical dissertation considered the biological and psychologicalimportance of the dance between mother and infant from conception through the bonding period. It proposed a unifying dance metaphor of pre- and perinatal motherinfant alchemical dance to provide a psychological term describing their first organizing co-creative dynamics. The process of alchemical dance is postulated to be Nature?s blueprint for the initial creational unfolding of human development.


Alchemy electronic dictionary. (2006). Retrieved October 12, 2006 from

Ainsworth, M. D. S. (1967). Infancy in Uganda: Infant care and the growth of love. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Arrien, A. (2000). Nine muses: A mythological path to creativity. New York: Jeremy Tarcher/Putnam.

Bainbridge, D. R. (2000). Making babies: The science of pregnancy. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Beebe, B. (2000). Co-constructing mother-infant distress. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 20, 421-440.

Beebe, B. (2003). Brief mother-infant treatment: Psychoanalytically informed video feedback. Infant Mental Health Journal, 24(1), 24-52.

Beebe, B., Lachmann, F. & Jaffe, J. (1997). Mother-infant interaction structures and presymbolic self-and object representations. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 2, 133-182.

Beebe, B. & Lachmann, F. (2002). Infant research and adult treatment: Co-constructing interactions. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.

Bohm, D. (1950). Quantum theory. New York: Dover Publications.

Bohm, D. (1980). Wholeness and the implicate order. London: Routlege & Kegan Paul.

Bohm, D. & Peat, F. D. (1987). Science, order and creativity. New York: Bantom Books.

Bohm, D. & Nichol, L. (1996). On dialogue. London: Routledge.

Bowlby, J. (1951). Maternal care and mental health. Monograph series 2, Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.

Bowlby, J. (1969/1982). Attachment: Vol. 1. New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Vol. 2. Separation: anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1979). The making and breaking of affectional bonds. New York: Routledge.

Bowlby, J. (1980). Attachment and loss: Vol. 3. Loss. New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.

Brown, A. S., Van Os, J., Driessens, C., Hoek, H.L., & Susser, E. S. (2000). Further evidence of relations between prenatal famine and major affective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry. 15(7), 2.

Capra, F. (1975). The too of physics. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc.

Capra, F. (1997). The web of life: A new scientific understanding of living systems. New York: Anchor Books.

Capra, F. (2001). Shiva's cosmic dance at CERN. Retrieved March 3, 2005 from

Capra, F. (2002). The hidden connections: Integrating the biological, cognitive and social dimensions of life into a science ofsustainability. New York: Doubleday.

Castellino, R. (1995). The polarity therapy paradigm regarding pre-conception, prenatal and birth imprinting. (Available from BEBA: Building and Enhancing Bonding and Attachment, 1105 N. Ontare, Santa Barbara, CA 93105)

Castellino, R. (1996). Being with newborns: An introduction to somatotrophic therapyAttention to the newborn; Healing betrayal, new hope for the prevention of violence. (Available from BEBA: Building and Enhancing Bonding and Attachment, 1105 N. Ontare, Santa Barbara, CA 93105)

Castellino, R. (2000). The stress matrix: Implications for prenatal and birth therapy. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology and Health. 15, 1.

Cavalli, T. F. (2002). Alchemical psychology: Old recipes for living in a new world. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher Putnum.

Chamberlain, D. B. (1986). Reliability of birth memory: Observations from mother and child pairs in hypnosis. Journal of the American Academy of Medical Hypnoanalysis, 1(2), 89-98.

Chamberlain, D. B. (1987). The cognitive newborn: A scientific update. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 4(1), 30-71.

Chamberlain, D. B. (1988). The significance of birth memories. Pre-& Perinatal Psychology Journal, 2(4), 136-154.

Chamberlain, D. B. (1989). Babies remember birth: And other extraordinary scientific discoveries about the mind. New York: Ballantine Books.

Chamberlain, D. B. (1992). Babies are not what we thought: Call for a new paradigm. International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Studies, 4 (3/4), 161-177.

Chamberlain, D. B. (1997). Prenatal body language: A new perspective on ourselves. Primal Renaissance: The Journal of Primal Psychology, 14 (1-2) 169-186.

Chamberlain, D. B. (1998). The mind of your newborn baby. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Chamberlain, D. B. (1999). The significance of birth memories. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 14(1-2), 65-83.

Chodorow, J. (1991). Dance therapy & depth psychology: The moving imagination. New York. Routledge, Chapman and Hall, Inc.

Christ, P. & Plaskow, J. (1979). Womenspirit rising: A feminist reader in religion. San Francisco: Harper & Row.

De Pascalis, A. (1995). Alchemy the golden art: The secrets of the oldest enigma. Rome: Gremese International.

Del Re, G. (2000). The cosmic dance: Science discovers the mysterious harmony of the universe. Philadelphia, PA: Templeton Foundation Press.

Egle Engler, B. (1975). Growth through movement related to emotional health. Unpublished master's thesis, University of California at Los Angeles, LA, CA.

Eliot, T. S. (1943). Four Quartets. Orlando, FL: Harcourt.

Ellis, H. (1923). The dance of life. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, Co.

Emerson, W. R. (1989). Psychotherapy with infants and children. Journal of Pre-and Perinatal Psychology, 3(3), 190-217.

Emerson, W. R. (1993). Treating birth trauma during infancy: Dynamic outcome. Petaluma, CA: Emerson Training Seminars.

Emerson, W. R. (1996). The vulnerable prenate. Pre and Perinatal Journal, 10(3), 125142.

Emerson, W. R. (2002). Somatotropic therapy. Journal of Heart-Centered Therapies, 5(2), 65-90.

Engler-Hicks, B. (2002). Moving into belonging: The dance of mother and child. In A.

Mertz (Ed.), The body can speak: Essays on creative movement education with emphasis on dance and drama. Edwardsville, IL: Southern Illinois Press.

Fabricius, J. (1976). Alchemy: The medieval alchemist and their royal art. London: Diamond Books.

Farrant, G. (1985, July). Cellular Consciousness. Paper presented at the Second Annual Congress on pre- and perinatal Psychology, San Diego, CA.

Fogel, A. (1993). Developing through relationships: Origins of communication, self and culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Fogel, A. (2001). Infancy, infant, family and society (4th Edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

Fonagy, P. (1996). Patterns of attachment, interpersonal relationships and health. In D. Blane, E. Brunner & R. G. Wilkinson (Eds.), Health and Social Organization: Towards a Health Policy for the 21st Century. London: Routledge.

Fonagy, P. (1998). Moments of change in psychoanalytic theory: Discussion of a new theory of psychic change. Infant Mental Health Journal, 19(3), 346-353.

Fonagy, P. (1999, May). Transgenerational consistencies of attachment: A new theory. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychoanalytic Association, Washington, D. C. Web site:

Fonagy, P. (2001). Attachment theory and psychoanalysis. New York: Other Press.

Fonagy, P., Gergely, G, Jurist, E. & Target, M. (2002). Affect regulation, mentalization, and the development of self. New York: Other Press.

Fonagy, P., & Target, M. (1997). Attachment and reflective function: Their role in self-organization. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 677-699.

Fonagy, P., & Target, M. (2005). Bridging the transmission gap: An end to an important mystery of attachment research? Attachment & Human Development, 7(3), 333-343.

Free Dictionary (2004). Retrieved Jan. 3, 2004 from

Gleiser, M. (1997). The dancing universe: From creation myths to the big bang. New York: Penguin Putnum Inc.

Gilbert, R. J. (2003). The healing wisdom of sacred geometry: Where science and spirit meet. Retrieved June 5, 2006 from http^/

Hanna, J. L. (1987). To dance is human: A theory of nonverbal communication. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Harmon, W., & Sahtouris, E. (1998). Biology revisioned. Berkley, CA: North Atlantic Books.

Harvey, A. (1995). The return of the mother. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher Putnam.

Highwater, J. (1978). Dance: Rituals of experience. New York: Alfred vanderMarck Editions.

Hillman, J. (1975). Re-Visioning psychology. New York: Harper & Row.

Ho, M. W. (1999, October). Coherent energy, liquid crystallinity and acupuncture. Presentation to British Acupuncture Society.

Ho, M. W. (2000). Towards a new ethic of science. Institute of Science in Society. Retrieved June 5, 2006 from

Ho, M. W. (2003, January/February). Dance of life. Resurgence, 216.

Hofer, M. (1995). Hidden regulators: Implications for a new understanding of attachment, separation and loss. In S. Goldberg, R. Muir & J. Kerr (Eds.), Journal of Attachment Theory: Social, developmental and clinical perspectives, (pp 203-230). Hillsdale, NJ: The Analytic Press.

Hrdy, S. B. (2002) Mother Nature: Maternal instincts and how they shape the human species. New York: Ballantine Books.

Hunt, V. (1968). The biological organization of man to move. Impulse: Dance-A projection of the future. San Francisco: Impulse Publications, Inc

Kauffman, S. (1993). The origins of order: Self-organization and selection in evolution. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kauffman, S. ( 1995). At home in the universe: The search for laws of self-organization and complexity. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kauffman, S. (2000). Investigations. London: Oxford University Press.

Kenny, C. B. (1988). The field of play: A guide for the theory and practice of music therapy. Atascadero, CA: Ridgeview Publishing Co.

Kenyon, T. & Sion, J. (2002). The magdalene manuscript: The alchemies ofHorus & the sex magic of Isis. Orcas, WA: Orb Communications.

Kerrod, R. (2003). Hubble: The mirror on the universe. Richmond Hill, Ontario, Canada: Firefly books, Ltd.

Kinsley, C. H., & Lambert, K. G. (2006) The maternal brain. Scientific American, 294, 7279.

Klein, M. (1932). The psycho-analysis of children. London: Hogarth Press.

Klein, M. (1955). The psychoanalytic play technique: Its historical significance. London: Hogarth Press.

Klein, M. (1961). Narrative of a child analysis: The conduct of psycho-analysis of children as seen in the treatment of a ten-year old boy. New York: The Free Press.

Klein, M. (1975). Envy and gratitude and other works. New York: Dell Publishing.

Klein, M. (1975). Love guilt and reparation: And other works 1921-1945. New York: The Free Press.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Larsen, S. (1999). Shaman's doorway: Opening imagination to power and myth. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions.

Leary, D. E. (1990). Metaphors in the history of psychology. Boston: Cambridge University Press.

Levine, S. and Levine, O. (1996). Embracing the beloved: Relationship as a path of awakening. New York: Anchor Books.

Lewis, M. D., & Granic, I. (Ed.). (2000). Emotion, development and self-organization, Dynamic systems approach to emotional development. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Lipton, B. (1998). Nature, nurture and the power of love. Pre and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 13(1), 3-10.

Lipton, B. (2005). The biology of belief: Unleashing the power of consciousness, matter and miracles. New York: Mountain of Love.

Mate, G. (2000). Scattered: How attention deficit disorder originates and what you can do about it. New York: Pheone Books.

Maturana, H. (1997). Metadesign. Retrieved Oct 7,2005 from

Maturana, H. R., & Varela, F. J. (1992). The tree of knowledge: The biological roots of human understanding. New York: Shambhala Publishers.

McCarty, W. A. (1996, 2000). Being with babies: What babies are teaching us. (Vol. 1 & 2). Goleta, CA: Wondrous Beginnings.

McCarty, W. A. (2002). The power of beliefs: What babies are teaching us. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 16(4), 341-360.

McCarty, W. A. (2004). Welcoming consciousness: Supporting babies' wholeness from the beginning of life. Santa Barbara, CA: W. B. Publishing.

McCraty, R. (2003). The energetic heart: Bioelectromagnetic interactions within and between people. Boulder Creek, CA: Institute of Heart Math E-books.

McCraty, R., Atkinson, M., & Tomasino, D. (2001). Science of the heart: Exploring the role of the heart in human performance. Boulder Creek, CA: Institute of Heart Math Ebooks.

McGinness, A. C. (1980). Music and healing. Heresies, 10, 2- 6.

McTaggart, L. (2002). The field: The quest for the secret force of the universe. New York: Harper Collins Publishers.

Merleau-Ponty, M. (1968). The visible and the invisible. (A. Lingis, Trans.). Evanston, IN: Northwestern University Press.

Nathanielsz, P. W. (1996). Life before birth: The challenges of fetal development. New York: Witt Freeman.

Nathanielsz, P. (1999). Life in the womb: The origins of health and disease. Ithaca, NY: Promethean Press.

Nathanielsz, P. (2001). The prenatal prescription. New York: HarperCollins.

Nilsson, L., & Hamberger, L. (1993). A child is born. New York: ADTP Seymour Lawrence Book.

Nobel, V. (1991). Shakti woman: Feeling our fire, healing our world. San Francisco: Harper San Francisco.

O'Murchu, D. (2004). Quantum theology: Spiritual implications of the new physics. New York: The Crossroad Publishing Company.

Olds, L. E. (1992). Metaphors of interrelatedness: Toward a systems theory of psychology. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Peat, F. D. (2002). From certainty to uncertainty: The story of science and ideas in the twentieth century. Washington D.C.: John Henry Press.

Plaskow, J. & Christ, C. P. (1989). Weaving the Visions: New Patterns in Feminist Spirituality. New York: Harper & Row.

Pribram, K. (1990). From metaphors to models: The use of analogy in neuropsychology. In D. E. Learly, (Ed.), Metaphors in the history of psychology. Boston: Cambridge University Press.

Rarick, L. (1958). Motor development during infancy and childhood. Madison, WI: College Printing and Typing Co.

Ricoeur, P. & Savage, D., (1977). Freud and philosophy: An essay on interpretation. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Rupp, J. (2002). The cosmic dance: An invitation to experience our oneness. New York: Orbis Books.

Sahtouris, E. & Lovelock, J. E. (2000). Earthdance: Living systems in evolution. New York: iUniverse.

Samples, B. (1976). Opening: A primer for self actualization. New York: Addison-Wesley Publishers.

Schore, A. N. (1994). Affect regulation and the origin of the self: The neurobiology of emotional development. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Schore, A. N. (1997). Early organization of the nonlinear right brain and development of a predisposition to psychiatric disorders. Development and Psychopathology, 9,595631.

Schore, A. N. (2001). Contributions from the decade of the brain to infant mental health: An overview. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22(11), 1-6.

Schore, A. N. (200Ia). Effects of a secure attachment relationship on right brain development, affect regulation, and infant mental health. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22(1-2), 7-66.

Schore, A. N. (200Ib). Contributions from the decade of the brain. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22(1), 1-6.

Schore, A. N. (2003). Affect regulation and disorders of the self/Affect regulation and the repair of the self. (Vols. 1-2). New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Scully, N. (2003). Alchemical healing: A guide to spiritual, physical and transformational medicine. Rochester, VT: Bear and Co.

Shainberg, C. (2005) Kabbalah and the powers of dreaming: Awakening the visionary life. Rochester, NY: Inner Traditions.

Spelke, E. (2002). Developmental neuroimaging: A developmental psychologist looks ahead. Developmental Science, 5(3), 392-396.

Stern, D. N. (1971). A micro-analysis of mother infant interaction: Behavior regulating social contact between a mother and her three-and-a-half month-old twins. Journal of America Academy of Child Psychiatry, 10, 501-517.

Stern, D. N. (1974). Mother and infant at play: The dyadic interaction involving facial, vocal and gaze behaviors. In M. Lewis and A. Rosenblum (Eds.), The effect of the infant on its caregivers (pp. 187-213). New York: JohnWiley & Sons.

Stern, D. N. (1977). The first relationship: Mother and infant. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Stern, D. N. (1985). The interpersonal world of the infant: A view from psychoanalysis and developmental psychology. New York: Basic Books Inc.

Stern, D. N. (1990). Diary of a baby: What your child sees, feels and experiences. New York: Basic Books.

Stern, D. N. (1995). The motherhood constellation: A unified view of parent-infant psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.

Stern, D. N. (2004). The present moment: In psychotherapy and everyday life. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.

Stern, D. N., Bruschweiler-Stern, N. & Freeland, A. (1998). The birth of a mother: How the motherhood experience changes you forever. New York: Basic Books.

Stewart, I. J. (2000). Sacred woman, sacred dance: Awakening spirituality through movement and ritual. Rochester, VT: Inner Traditions.

Stinchcome, A. (1968). Functional Causual Imagery. In Constructing Social Theories. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Stone, M. (1976). When god was a woman. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Tortora, S. (2006). The dancing dialogue: Using the communicative power of movement with young children. New York: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co., Inc.

Tyson, N. D. G., & Goldsmith, D. (2004). Origins: Fourteen billion years of comic evolution. New York: W. W. Norton & Co, Inc.

van Os, J., Jones, P., Lewis, G., Wadsworth, M. & Murray, R. (1997). Developmental precursors of affective illness in a general population birth cohort. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54(7), 625-631.

Verny, T. & Kelly, J. (1981). The secret life of the unborn child-How you can prepare your unborn baby for a happy, healthy life. New York: Dell Publishing.

Verny, T., & Weintraub, P. (2000). Nurturing the unborn child: A nine-month program to soothing stimulating, and communicating with your baby. New York: Delacorte Press.

Verny, T. & Weintraub, P. (2002a). Tomorrow's baby: The art of science of parenting from conception through infancy. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Verny, T. & Weintraub, P. (2002b). Pre-parenting: Nurturing your child from conception. New York: Simon & Schuster.

von Franz, M. L. (1997). Alchemical active imagination. Boston: Shambhala.

von Franz, M. L. (1980). Alchemy: An introduction to the symbolism and the psychology. Toronto, Canada: Inner City Books.

Von Laban, R. (1973). Modern educational dance. London: MacDonald & Evans.

Winnicott, D. W. (1949, 1958). Birth memories, birth trauma and anxiety in collected papers through pediatrics to psychoanalysis. New York: Basic Books.

Winnicott, D. W. (1964). The child, the family and the outside world. Harmondsworth, Middlesex England: Penguin Books.

Winnicott, D. W. (1971). Playing and reality. New York: Basic Books.

Winnicott, D. W. (1987). Babies and their mothers. London: Free Association Books.

Winnicott, D. W. (1987). The child, the family, and the outside world. New York: Perseus Publishing.

Winnicott, D. W. (1989). Home is where we start from: Essays by a psychoanalyst. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., Inc.

Wolf, F. A. (2000). Mind into matter: A new alchemy of science and spirit. Needham, MA: Moment Point Press, Inc.

Wolf, F. A. (2001). Mind and matter: A new alchemy of science and spirit. Needham, MA: Moment Point Press, Inc.

Zukav, G. (1979). The dancing wu li masters: An overview of the new physics. New York: Harper Collins.

The Factor Structure of the Cambridge Worry Scale in Early Pregnancy

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
October 2005

The current study sought to establish the psychometric properties of the Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS) in early pregnancy to determine the potential clinical usefulness of the sub-scales that comprise this measure. The CWS was administered to 129 women during early pregnancy at the antenatal booking clinic. Factor analysis revealed support for the socio-medical, health, socio-economic and relationships subscale domains. The CWS sub-scales were observed to assess dimensions distinct to those of anxiety and depression.


Akaike, H. (1987). Factor analysis and the AIC. Psychometrika, 52, 317-332.

Arbuckle, J.L. & Wothke, W. (1999). AMOS 4.0 Users Guide, Smallwaters, Chicago.

Beck, C.T. (2001). Predictors of postpartum depression: an update. Nursing Research, 50, 275-285.

Bentler, P.M. & Bonett, D.G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588-606.

Bentler, P.M. (1990). Comparative fit indexes in structural models. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 238-246.

Bozdogan, H. (1987). Model selection and Akaike's information criterion (AIC): The general theory and its analytical extensions. Psychometrika, 52, 345-370.

Browne, M.W. & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K.A. Bollen & J.S. Long (Eds.), Testing Structural Equation Models. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Borkovec, T.D., Metzger, R.L., & Pruinsky, T. (1986). Anxiety, worry and the self. In L. Hartman & K.R. Blackstein (Eds.), Perception of Self in Emotional Disorder and Psychotherapy. New York: Plenum.

Carmines, E.G. & Mciver, J.P. (1981). Analyzing models with unobserved variables: Analysis of covariance structures. In G.W. Bohmstedt & E.F. Borgatta (Eds.), Social Measurement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Chung, T.K., Lau, T.K., Yip, A.S., Chiu, H.F., & Lee, D.T. (2001). Antepartum depressive symptomology is associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Psychosomatic Medicine, 63, 830-834.

Collins, V., Halliday, J., Warren, R., & Williamson, R. (2000). Cancer worries, risk perceptions and associations with interest in DNA testing and clinic satisfaction in a familial colorectal cancer clinic. Clinical Genetics, 58, 460-468.

Cox, J.L., Chapman, G., Murray, D. & Jones, P. (1996). Validation of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) in non-postnatal women. Journal of Affective Disorders, 39, 185-189.

Cox, J.L., Holden, J.M. & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. British Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 782-786.

Cox, J.L. & Holden, J.M. (2003). A guide to the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. London: Gaskell.

Crandon, A.J. (1979). Maternal anxiety and obstetric complications. Psychosomatic Research, 23, 109-111.

Cronbach, L.J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.

Dunbar, M., Ford, G., Hunt, K. & Der, G. (2000). A confirmatory factor analysis of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale: comparing empirically and theoretically derived structures. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 79-94.

Evans, J., Heron J., Francomb, J., Oke, S. & Golding, J. (2001). Cohort study of depressed mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. British Medical Journal, 323, 257-260.

Gebhardt, W.A. & Brosschot, J.F. (2002). Desirability of control: Psychometric properties and relationships with locus of control, personality, coping and mental and somatic complaints in three Dutch samples. European Journal of Personality, 16, 423-438.

Georgsson-Ohman, S., Grunewald, C., & Waldenstrom, U. (2003). Women's worries during pregnancy: testing the Cambridge Worry Scale on 200 Swedish women. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 17, 148-152.

Glazer, G. (1980). Anxiety levels and concerns among pregnant women. Research in Nursing and Health, 3, 107-113.

Glover, V. (1997). Maternal stress or anxiety in pregnancy and emotional development of the child. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 105-106.

Green, J.M. (1998). Postnatal depression or perinatal dysphoria? Findings from a longitudinal community-based study using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Journal of Reproductive & Infant Psychology, 16, 143-55.

Green, J. (1990). Calming or Harming? A critical review of psychological effects of fetal diagnosis of pregnant women. Gallon Institute, Occasional Papers, second series, No 2. London: Galton Institute.

Green, J., Kafetsios, K., Statham, H., & Snowden, C. (2003). Factor Structure, validity and reliability of the Cambridge Worry Scale in a pregnant population. Journal of Health Psychology, 8, 753-764.

Green, J.M., & Murton, F.E. (1993). Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Families responses to diagnosis and genetic counselling. Cambridge: Centre for Family Research, University of Cambridge.

Hilvingsson, I., Radestad, I., Rubersson, C., & Waldenstrom, U. (2002). Few women wish to be delivered by ceasarean section. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 109, 618-623.

Homer, C., Farrell, T., Davies, G., & Brown, M. (2002). Women's worry in the antenatal period. British Journal of Midwifery, 10, 356-360.

Hu, L.T. & Bentler, P.M. (1995). Evaluating model fit. In R.H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modelling: Concepts, issues and applications. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Jomeen, J. & Martin, C.R. (2004a). Confirmation of an occluded anxiety component within the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) during early pregnancy, Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, in press.

Jomeen, J. & Martin, C.R. (20046). Is the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) a reliable screening tool in early pregnancy? Psychology and Health, in press.

Joreskog, K.G. & Sorbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8. Chicago, IL: Scientific Software International.

Karimova, G. & Martin, C.R. (2003). A psychometric evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale during pregnancy. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 8, 89-103.

Kline, P. (1993). The handbook of psychological testing. London: Routledge.

Kline, P. (2000). A psychometrics primer. London: Free Association Books.

Kline, R.B. (1998). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling. New York: Guilford Press.

Light, K.H., & Fenster, C. (1974). Maternal concerns during pregnancy. American Journal of Obstetric Gynaecology, 118, 46-50.

Lubin, B., Gardner, S., & Roth, A. (1975). Mood and somatic symptoms during pregnancy. Psychosomatic Medicine, 37, 136-146.

Marsh, H.W., Balla, J.R. & McDonald, R.P. (1988). Goodness-of-fit indices in confirmatory factor analysis: The effect of sample size. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 391-110.

Martin, C.R. & Jomeen, J. (2003). Is the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ12) confounded by scoring method during pregnancy and following birth? Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 21, 267-278.

Martin, C.R. & Jomeen, J. (2004). The impact of clinical management type on maternal locus of control in pregnant women with pre-labour rupture of membranes at term. Health Psychology Update, 13, 3-13.

Martin, C.R. & Thompson, D.R. (1999). Utility of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients with end-stage renal disease on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 4, 369-376.

Martin, C.R. & Thompson, D.R. (2000). A psychometric evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in coronary care patients following acute myocardial infarction. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 5, 193-201.

Martin, C.R., Tweed, A.E. & Metcalfe, M.S. (2004). A psychometric evaluation of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale in patients diagnosed with end-stage renal disease. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 43, 51-64.

Mulder, E. J.H., Robles de Medina, P.G., Huizink, A.C., Van den Bergh, J., & Buitlaar, K. (2001). Prenatal maternal stress: Effects on pregnancy and the (unborn) child. Early Human Development, 70, 3-14.

National Institute For Clinical Excellence. (2003). Clinical Guidelines for Antenatal Care: Routine Antenatal Care. London: Department of Health.

Nimby, G.T., Lundberg, L., Sveger, T., & McNeil, F. (1999). Maternal distress and congenital malformations: do mothers of malformed fetuses have more problems? Journal of Psychiatric Research, 33, 291-301.

O'Connor, T.G., Heron, J., Golding, J., Beveridge, M., it Glover, V. (2002). Maternal antenatal anxiety and children's behavioural/emotional problems at 4 years: report form the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 502-508.

Paarlberg, K.M., Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M., Passchier, J., Dekker, G.A., & Van Geijn, H.P. (1995). Psychosocial factors and pregnancy outcome: A review with emphasis on methodological issues. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 39, 563-595.

Rubertsson, C., Waldenstrom, U. & Wickberg, B. (2003). Depressive mood in early pregnancy: Prevalence and women at risk in a national Swedish sample. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 21, 113-123.

Sikorski, J., Wilson, J., Clement, S., Das, S., & Smeeton, N. (1996). A randomised controlled trial comparing two schedules of antenatal visits: the antenatal care project. British Medical Journal, 312, 546-553.

Snaith, R.P. & Zigmond, A.S. (1994). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale Manual. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.

Statham, H., Green, J., & Kafetsios, K. (1997). Who worries that something might be wrong with the baby? A prospective study of 1072 women. Birth, 24, 223-233.

Stober, J., & Muijs, M. (2001). Patterns of situational appraisal in experiences of worry and anxiety. Anxiety, Stress and Coping, 14, 367-390.

Stocky, A. & Lynch, J. (2000). Acute psychiatric disturbance and the puerperium. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 14, 73-87.

Stowe, Z.N. & Nemeroff, C.B. (1995). Women at risk for postpartum-onset major depression. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 173, 639-645.

Tallis, F., Eynsenck, M., & Matthews, A. (1991). Elevated evidence requirements and worry. Personality and Individual Differences, 12, 21-27.

Weisberg, R.B., & Paquette, J. A. (2002). Screening and Treatment of anxiety disorders in pregnant and lactating women. Women's Health Issues, 12, 32-36.

Zigmond, A.S. & Snaith, R.P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67, 361-370.

Julie Jomeen and Colin R. Martin

Department of Health Studies, University of Leeds, United Kingdom

Faculty of Medicine, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR, China.

Send correspondence to: Professor Colin R. Martin, Faculty of Medicine, The Nethersole School of Nursing, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Esther Lee Building, Chung Chi College, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong. Tel: +852 2609 8172. Fax: 4852 2603 5269. E-mail:

Tobacco Abuse in Pregnancy

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
December 2002

Nicotine Tobacum with its 4,000 additives remains the most injurious addiction to the pregnant woman and her baby. At the discovery of being pregnant 60% of women will quit and 40% will continue throughout the pregnancy. For those 40% tobacco's chemicals will be absorbed into mother's blood, and the baby will be bathed in these toxins. There will be 144,000 spontaneous abortions (approximately 14.6% of all pregnancies), a weight deficit of almost one pound, a loss of 50 I.Q. points in the baby, and affective disorders programmed in the innocent fetus.


Baker, T.B., et al. (1999). Hooked on a feeling. Sc. News. 155, 395.

Brennan, P.A., Gerkin, E.R., & Mednick, S.A. (1999). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and adult male criminal outcomes. Arch. Gen. Psych. 56, 215-219.

Dwyer, T. (1999). SIDS linked to fetal exposure to maternal smoking. Am. J. Epidem. 149: 593-602.

Excite Health (1999). Tobacco use-smoking and smokeless tobacco. Internet, p. 6.

Ferguson, D.M. (1999). Editorial comment: Prenatal smoking and anti-social behavior. Arch. Gen. Psych. 56, 223-224.

Ferguson, D.M., Woodard, L.J., & Horwood, L.J. (1998). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and psychiatric adjustment in late adolescence. Arch. Gen. Psych. 55, 721-727.

Gruenwald, J., Brendler, T., & Jaenicke, C. (1998). PDR [Physicians Desk Reference] Nicotiana Tabacum. New Jersey: Medical Economics Comp.

Hammond, E.G. (1961). Smoking in relation to physical complaints. Arch. Envir. Health, 3, 28-46.

Hanrahan, J.P., Mascola, M., McGreevey, S., Van Yunaicus, H., Tagar, I.B., & Speizer, F.E. (1998). 10-year study of Cotinine as marker for tobacco use. Am. J. P. H.

Harmon, C. (1994). Prenatal fetal monitoring. In D.K. James, P.J. Steer, L.P. Weiner, & B. Gonik (Eds.) High Risk Pregnancy. W.B. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Co.

Hecht, S.S. (1990). Nicotine derived Nitrosaminoketones (NNK), Am. J. P. H., May.

James, D.K., Steer, P.J., Weiner, L.P., & Gonik, B. (Eds.) (1994). High Risk Pregnancy. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co.

Kasmel, W.B. (1987). Metabolic risk factors for coronary heart disease in women: Farmington study. Am. Heart J. 114, 413-419.

Kline, J., Stein, Z.A., Susser, M., & Warburton, N. (1977). Smoking: a risk factor for spontaneous abortion. New England Journal of Medicine, 297, 793-796.

Mascola, M.A., Van Vunakis, H., & Tager, LB. (1998). Breast-feeding may be a significant source of infant's exposure to tobacco products. Am. J. P. H. June.

Meyer, M., & Tonascia, R. (1977). Maternal smoking, pregnancy complications, preterm rupture of the bag of waters before 34 weeks and perinatal mortality. Am. J. Ob/G 128, 494.

Millberger, S., Biederman, J., Faraone, S.V., Chen, L., & Jones, J. (1996). Is maternal smoking during pregnancy a risk factor for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children? Am. J. Psych. 153, 1138-1142.

Nathanielsz, P.W. (1999). Life in the womb: the origin of health and disease. Ithaca, New York: Promethean Press.

Rosh, D., Andrew, J., & Kiristal, A. (1990). Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy: adiposity, social class and perinatal outcome in Cardiff Wales (1965-1977). Am. J. Perinatology 7, 391-326.

Rotarian (editorial) (1999). Young smokers lighting up in record numbers. The Rotarian. May. p. 12.

Science News (1999). Nicotine addiction curbed by new drug. 155, 11.

Socol, M.L., Mennig, F.A., Mirata, V., & Drusin, M.L. (1982). Maternal smoking causes fetal hypoxia: epidemological evidence. Am. J. ObG 142, 114-218.

Stirrat, G. (1994), Recurrent miscarriage. In D.K. James, P.J. Steer, L.P. Weiner, & B. Gonik (Eds.) High Risk Pregnancy. W.B. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Co.

Thompson, C. (1993-1998). How the anti-smokers lie about neonatal costs and smoking. Smoker's Rights Action Group, Sc. News, Internet site.

Wakschlag, L.S., Lahey, B.B., Loeber, R., Green, S.M., Gordon, R.A., & Leventhal, B.L. (1997). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of conduct disorders in boys. Arch. Gen. Psych. 54, 670-676.

Williams, M.A., Mittendorf, R., Lisbern, E., Monson, P.R., Schoenbaum, S.C., & Genest, D.R., (1991). Cigarette smoking during pregnancy in relation to placenta previa. Am J. ObG 165, 28-32.

Robert J. Oliver, M.D., Ph.D.

Robert J. Oliver, M.D., Ph.D. is a retired Obstetrician and Gynecologist. Also a Sexologist/Gestalt Psychotherapist, he currently resides hi Arizona. Correspondence about this article may be sent to 3734 East 4th Street, Tucson, Arizona 85716. Email:

The Origin of Anxiety: A Synopsis

Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
December 2002

For thousands of years, in all developed societies throughout the world, mothers have been separated from their babies-as an emotional adaptation to a life of alienation. The first advanced civilizations which can relate this to us are the Sumerians-and their successors the Babylonians. Five thousand years ago they developed the cuneiform writing system and then recorded the oldest stories in the world. I understand their mythology as the 'great dreams' of these peoples.



Renggli, Franz 1974: Angst und Geborgenheit. Soziokulturelle Folgen der Mutter-Kind Beziehung im ersten Lebensjahr. Ergebnisse aus Verhaltensforschung, Psychoanalyse und Ethnologie. Hamburg. (*Anxiety and security. Socio-cultural consequences of the mother-child relationship in the first year. Findings from behavioral research, psychoanalysis and ethnology.)

Renggli, Franz 1992: Selbstzerstorung aus Verlassenheit. Die Pest als Ausbruch einer Massenpsychose im Mittelalter. Zur Geschichte der friihen Mutter-Kind Beziehung. Hamburg. (*Self-destruction due to Abandonment. The Plague as an eruption of a mass psychosis in the Middle Ages. On the history of the early mother-child relationship).

Renggli, Franz 2000: Der Sonnenaufgang als Geburt eines Babys. Der pranatale Schlussel zur agyptischen Mythologie. Eine Hommage an den hollandischen Religionshistoriker Bruno Hugo Stricker. (**The sunrise as the birth of a baby. The prenatal key to Egyptian mythology. Homage to the Dutch historian of religion Bruno Hugo Stricker.) In: The International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, Band 12:365-82.

Renggli, Franz 2001: Der Ursprung der Angst, antike Mythen und das Trauma der Geburt. Dusseldorf. (*The origin of anxiety, ancient myths and the trauma of birth.)
Renggli, Franz 2002: Tracing the Roots of Panic to Prenatal Trauma. In Brooke Warner (Editor): Panic: Origins, Insight and Treatment. Berkeley, California, North Atlantic Books.
Franz Renggli, Ph.D.

This paper is the first synopsis in English in which the author, Franz Renglli, introduces the major themes of his scholarly work published in German in 2001: Der Ursprung der Angst, antike Mythen und das Trauma der Geburt (The Origin of Anxiety, Ancient Myths and the Trauma of Birth). The German edition was published in Dusseldorf. Correspondence to: Dr. Franz Renggli, psychoanalyst and body psychotherapist, Nonnenweg 11, 4055 Basel, Switzerland. Email:


Visit Us on Social Media

Inspiring Stories

Featured Article

Latest Journal

Latest Newsletter