Attachment

A Journey of Love: The Influence of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology on Parent-Child Bonding

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Publication Date: 
October 2007

The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to better understand parents? experiences of bonding with their babies in utero and after birth, and to discover the relevance of a prenatal and perinatal psychology (PPN) based bonding class in this process. Five couples were recruited from prenatal parenting classes in Santa Barbara, CA, and interviewed in person 2-6 months after giving birth.

References: 

Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Barrack, A. C. (2004). [Influence of prenatal and perinatal psychology on parent-child bonding]. Unpublished raw data.

Barrack, A. C. (2005). A journey of love: The influence of prenatal and perinatal psychology on parent-child bonding. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Santa

Barbara Graduate Institute, CA.

Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.

Bowlby, J. (1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.

Chamberlain, D. (2003). Communicating with the mind of a prenate: Guidelines for parents and birth professionals. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 18(2), 95-108.

Ciechanowski, P. S., Walker, E. A., Katon, W. J., & Russo, J. E. (2002). Attachment theory: A model for health care utilization and somatization. Psychosomatic Medicine, 64, 660-667.

Emerson, W. R. (1996). The vulnerable prenate. Pre- & Perinatal Psychology Journal, 10(3), 125-142.

Hrdy, S. B. (1999). Mother nature: Maternal instincts and how they shape the human species. New York: Ballantine Books.

Karen, R. (1994). Becoming attached. New York: Oxford University Press.

Karmiloff, K., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1999). Everything your baby would ask...if only he or she could talk. New York: Golden Books.

Karr-Morse, R., & Wiley, M. (1997). Ghosts from the nursery: Tracing the roots of violence. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press.

Kennell, J. H., & Klaus, M. H. (1984). Mother-infant bonding: Weighing the evidence. Developmental Review, 4, 274-282.

Kitzinger, S. (2003). The complete book of pregnancy and childbirth. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.

Klaus, M. H., & Kennell, J. H. (1976). Maternal-infant bonding. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby.

Lawrence-Lightfoot, S., & Davis, J. H. (1997). The art and science of portraiture. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Luminare-Rosen, C. (2003). Birth, brain, and bonding: The psychology and science of attachment. Paper presented at the Association for Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, San Francisco, CA.

Lyons-Ruth, K., Easterbrooks, M. A., & Cibelli, D. D. (1997). Infant attachment strategies, infant mental lag, and maternal depressive symptoms: Predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems at age 7. Developmental Psychology, 33(4), 681-692.

Magid, K., & McKelvey, C. (1987). High risk: Children without a conscience. New York: Bantam.

Main, M. (1991). Metacognitive knowledge, metacognitive monitoring, and singular (coherent) vs. multiple (incoherent) models of attachment: Findings and directions for future research. In C. M. Parkes, J. Stevenson-Hinde, & P. Marris (Eds.), Attachment across the life cycle. London: Routledge.

McCarty, W. A. (1996, 2000). Being with babies: What babies are teaching us, an introduction, 1. Santa Barbara, CA: Wondrous Beginnings.

McCarty, W. A. (2002). The power of beliefs: What babies are teaching us. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 16(4), 341-360.

Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Nathanielsz, P. (1999). Life in the womb: The origin of health and disease. New York: Promethean Press.

Nolan, M. (1997). Antenatal education - where next? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 25, 1198-1204.

Panksepp, J. (2001). The long-term psychobiological consequences of infant emotions: Prescriptions for the twenty-first century. Infant Mental Health Journal, 22(1-2), 132-173.

Schore, A. N. (2000). Attachment and the regulation of the right brain. Attachment & Human Development, 2(1), 23-47.

Schore, A. N. (2002). The neurobiology of attachment and early personality organization. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 16(3), 249-263.

Sears, W, & Sears, M. (2001). The attachment parenting book. Boston: Little, Brown.

Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind. New York: Guilford Press.

Siegel, D. J., & Hartzell, M. (2003). Parenting from the inside out. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam.

Sroufe, L. A., Cooper, R. G., DeHart, G. B., & Marshall, M. (Eds.). (1996). Child development: Its nature and its course (3rd éd.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Taylor, S. J., & Bogdan, R. (1998). Introduction to qualitative research methods (3rd ed.). New York: John Wiley.

Trevathan, W. R. (1987). Human birth: An evolutionary perspective. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.

Tsujino, J., Higa, M. O., Eng, D., & Inuihara, T. (2002). Specificity of a mother's attachment to her child using the attachment inventory and factors related to attachment: Longitudinal research from prenatal to age three. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 17(1), 63-84.

van Manen, M. (2002). Orientations in phenomenology. Retrieved July 1, 2004, from http://www.phenomenologyonline.com

Verny, T., & Weintraub, P. (2002). Tomorrow's baby. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Watson, M., & Ecken, L. (2003). Learning to trust. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Willford, R. A. (1998). The impact of prenatal education on parenting. Dissertation Abstracts International. 36(5). (UMI No. 1390160).

Violence & Pregnancy: A Whole-Self Psychology Perspective

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Publication Date: 
May 2003

This paper focuses on violence as pathology occurring primarily during pregnancy and explains the resulting impact on one's life. It addresses this specific theme, and does not include the violence found in some medical birth procedures, or violence generated by gender. This paper is based upon a presentation by the authors in March 2001, at the OMAEP [World Organization of Prenatal Education] & ANEP [Association of National Prenatal Education] Congress in Puerto la Cruz, Venezuela.

References: 

American Academy of Pediatrics. (2002). Retrieved from www.aap.org/mediamatters Brekhman, G. I. (2000). The conception of the multiple-level co-ordinated action between the mother and her unborn child: the methodological approach and the methods of research. Ivanovo, Russia:

Fedor-Freybergh, P. G., (1993). Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine: A new approach to primary prevention. Int. J. Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, Vol.5(3): 285-292. Preceeded by Fedor-Freybergh, Peter G., 1983 Psycophysische Gegebenheiten der Perinalzeit aïs Umwalt des Kindes. In: Schindler, S. Zimprich, H. (eds.) Okologie der Perinatalzeit. Stuttgart: Hippocrates, pp.24-49.

Ferenzi, S. (1913). Entwicklungssufen des wirklichkeitssinnes "(Stages in the development of the sense of reality), Int. Zietscrift fur Psychoanalyse 1, 124-138. Transi. 1924 Psycho-Analysis Chapter 8 Maresfield Reprints, London

Fodor, N. (1949). Search for the beloved: A clinical investigation of the trauma of birth and prenatal condition. New York: Hermitage Press.

Freud, S. (1918) History of infantile neurosis, collected papers vol. Ui, 583 Standard Edition.

Graber, G. H. (1924). Die ambivalenz des kindes (The ambiance of children). Vienna: Psychoanalytic Press.

Lipton, B. (2001, Spring). Fathers as genetic engineers. Presented at the World Organization of Prenatal Education (OMAEP) and the Association of National Prenatal Education (ANEP) Congress, Puerto la Cruz, Venezuela.

Lucas, W. B. (1993). Regression therapy: A handbook for professionals. Creek Park, CA: Deep Forest Press.

Peerbolte, M. (1975). Psychic energy in prenatal dynamics: Introduction p. XXXII Wassanaar NL: Servire B. V.

Perry, B.D., Pollard, R., Blakely, Baker, B., & Vigilante, D. (1995). Childhood trauma, the neurobiology of adaptation and use-dependent development of the brain: How states become traits. Infant Mental Health Journal 16(4): 271-291.

Perry, B. D. (1997) Incubated in terror: Neurodevelopmental factors in the cycle of violence, in Children, youth and violence: The search for solutions. J. Osofsky, Ed. pp. 124-148. New York: Guilford Press .

Rank, O. (1924) Dos trauma der geburt und seine bedeutung fur die psychoanalyse (The trauma of birth: Its meaning for psychoanalysis). Vienna: International Psychoanalytic Press English Translation 1952, New York: Brunner.

Schore, A. N. (1996). The experience-dependent maturation of a regulatory system in the orbital cortex and the origin of developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychology, 8: 59-87.

Schore, A. N. (1997) Affect regulation and the origin of the self. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum

Soldera, G. (2002, Summer) The individual life project: A new way of flscovering the unborn child world and potentialities. Journal of Pre- and Perinatal Psychology, Vol. 16(4): 361-376.

Sonne, J. C. (1994a, March) The relevance of the dread of being aborted to models of therapy and models of the mind. Part I: Case examples. The International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 6(1): 67-86. Republished (1995, Spring) Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 9(3):195-219.

Sonne, J. C. (1994b, June). The relevance of the dread of being aborted to models of therapy and models of the mind. Part II: Mentation and communication in the unborn. The International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 6(2): 247-275. Republished (1995, Summer) Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, 9 (4): 257-294.

Sonne, J. C. (1996, September). Interpreting the dread of being aborted in therapy. The International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 8(3): 317-339. Republished (1997, Summer) Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal 11(4):185-214.

Sonne, J. C. (2000, Fall) Abortion survivors at Columbine. Journal of Pre- and Perinatal Psychology 15(1):3-22.

Turner, J. R. (1988). Birth, life, and more life: Reactive patterning based on prebirth events. In Fedor-Freybergh, P. G. & Vogel, V. (Eds.), Prenatal and perinatal psychology and medicine: encounter with the unborn, (pp 309-316). New Jersey: Parthenon.

Turner, J.R. & Turner, T. (1989, October). Birth, life, and more life: Implications of prebirth memory therapy prenatal psychology in the structuring processes of consciousness.© Presented at the 1st German Rebirthing Kongress. University of Osnabruck W. Germany.

Turner, Jon RG (1990) There is no such thing as anger: It is something else! Santa Fe, NM: Life's Streams Books.

Turner, JRG & TGN, (1995) Past life echoes© regression therapy is a key element of Whole -Self, Birth, Life & More Life! Santa Fe, NM: Life's Streams Books

Turner, JR & TGN, (1992). Discovering the emotional DNA: The emotional continuity for the unborn child through prebirth memory therapy. Presentation at the 10* ISPPM International Congress. Cracow, Poland 15-17 May 92.

Turner, J.R. & Turner, T. (1993, Summer). Prebirth memory therapy including prematurely delivered patients. Pre- and Perinatal Psychology Journal, Vol. 7(4): 321-332.

Verny, T. (2001, Spring) The birth of violence. Presented at the World Organization of Prenatal Education (OMAEP) and the Association of National Prenatal Education (ANEP) Congress, Puerto La Cruz, Venezuela.

Westermann, S. (1996). Die antwort bist du selbst: Whole-Self ein innerer weg Ryvellus. Seehaupt-Munchen, Germany: Medienverlag.

Westermann, S. (2000). Der elternschlussel (The parent-key) entwickelt (based on) von Whole- Self-Methode nach Turner. Beispliele von Pranatalen Pragungen von Verhalten in Beziehungen. International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 12(1): 221-228.

Jon RG & Troya GN Turner-Groot are pioneers in Prebirth Memory Recovery© and CoFounders & Directors of Whole-Self Discovery & Development Institute, Inc. in Grootebroek, The Netherlands. They have published over 40 papers worldwide. For more information, please see: www.Whole-Self.info

The Relationship Between Emotional Intelligence of Mothers and Problem Behavior in Their Young Children: A Longitudinal Analysis

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Price: $10.00
Publication Date: 
March 2007

We studied the relationship between the emotional intelligence of mothers and problem behavior in their young children. The study covered 65 mothers who answered questionnaires during all of the studied phases, i.e., when the child was a fetus, and when it was 2, 3, 4, and 5 years old. The emotional intelligence of the mothers was measured with Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: Bar-On, 1997). The results showed a relationship between certain areas of emotional intelligence of the mothers and problem behavior in their children.

References: 

Bor-On, R. Paker, J. (2000). The handbook of emotional intelligence. San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Ciarrochi, J., Forgas, J., Mayer, J. (2001). Emotional intelligence in everyday life. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.

Eyberg, S.M. (1992). Parent and teacher behavior inventories for the Assessment of conduct problem behavior in children. In L. Vandecreek, S. Knapp, & T.L. Jackson (Eds.), Innovation in clinical practice: A source book (Vol. 11). Professional Resource Press.

Eyberg, S.M., Boggs, S.R., Algina, J. (1995). Parent-child interaction therapy: A psycho-social model for the treatment of young children with conduct problem behavior and their families. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 31, 83-91.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional Intelligence. New York: Bantam.

James B (1994). Handbook for treatment of attachment-trauma problem in children. New York: Lexington Books.

Main, M. Goldwyn, R. (1984). Predicting rejection of her infant from mother's representation of her own experience: Implications for the abused-abusing intergenerational cycle. Child Abuse and Neglect, 8, 203-217.

Mayer, J.D. Salvoey, P. (1997). What is emotional intelligence? In P. Salvoey & D. Sluyter (Eds.), Emotional developmental and emotional intelligence: Educational implications. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Muller, M.E. (1994). A questionnaire to measure mother-to-infant attachment. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 2(2), 129-142.

Sameroff, A.J. Emde, R.N. (1989). Relationship disturbances in early childhood. New York: Basic Books, Inc.

Spielberger, C.D., Gorsuh, R.L., Lushene, R.E. (1970). STAI Manual. Consulting Psyhchologist Press, pp. 23-49.

Tsujino, J., Oyama-Higa, M., Inuihara, T. (2002). Specificity of a mother's attachment to her child using the attachment inventory and factors related to attachment: longitudinal research from prenatal to age three. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 17(1), 63-84.

Tsujino, J. Oyama-Higa, M. (2004). Factors related to maternal violence: Longitudinal research from prenatal to age four. Journal of Prenatal & Perinatal Psychology & Health, 18(3), 241-253.

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